- To make shorter; to epitomize; to contract by using fewer words, yet retaining the sense in substance – used of writings. ex. Justin abridged the history of Trogus Pompeius.
- To lessen; to diminish; as to abridge labor; to abridge power of rights.
- To deprive; to cut off from; followed by of; as to abridge one of his rights, or enjoyments. to abridge from, is now obsolete or improper.
- In algebra, to reduce a compound quantity or equation to its more simple expression. ex. The equation thus abridged is called a formula.
- Literally, unfolded. Hence, plain in language; open to the understanding; clear, not obscure or ambiguous; express, not merely implied. ex. An explicit proposition or declaration is that in which the words, in their common acceptation, express the true meaning of the person who utters them, and in which there is no ambiguity or disguise.
- Plain; open; clear; unreserved; having no disguised meaning or reservation; applied to persons. ex. He was explicit in his terms.
adverb: de facto; defacto
in fact, or in effect, whether by right or not. ex. “the island has been de facto divided into two countries”
Similar: in practice, in effect, in fact, in reality, really, actually, in actuality
Opposite: in theory, de jure
adjective: de facto; defacto
denoting someone or something that is such in fact. ex. “a de facto one-party system”
Similar: actual, existing, existent, real, effective, actual
Adverb: de jure; dejure
according to rightful entitlement or claim; by right. ex. “the resolution declared that the independent Republic of Latvia proclaimed on November 18, 1918 was still in existence de jure”
Similar: by right, rightfully, legally, according to the law
Opposite: de facto
Adjective: de jure; dejure
denoting something or someone that is rightfully such. ex. “he had been de jure king since his father’s death”
- Reformation; amendment. ex. For us the more necessary is a speedy redress of ourselves. [This sense is now unusual.]
- Relief; remedy; deliverance from wrong, injury or oppression; as the redress of grievances. ex. We applied to government, but could obtain no redress. There is occasion for redress when the cry is universal.
- Reparation; indemnification. [This sense is often directly intended or implied in redress ]
- One who gives relief. ex. Fair majesty, the refuge and redress of those whom fate pursues and wants oppress.
REDRESS’, verb transitive
- To set right; to amend. ex. In yonder spring of roses, find what to redress till noon. [In this sense, as applied to material things, Rarely used.]
- To remedy; to repair; to relieve from, and sometimes to indemnify for; as, to redress wrongs; to redress injuries; to redress grievances. ex. Sovereigns are bound to protect their subjects, and redress their grievances.
- To ease; to relieve; as, she labored to redress my pain. [We use this verb before the person or the thing. We say, to redress an injured person, or to redress the injury. The latter is most common.]
To withdraw from fellowship, communion or association; to separate ones’s self; as, certain ministers seceded from the church of Scotland about the year 1733.
Include Susan Polla’s thought forms
- A supreme lord or ruler; one who possesses the highest authority without control. ex. Some earthly princes, kings and emperors are sovereigns in their dominions.
- A supreme magistrate; a king.
- A gold coin of England, value 20s or $4.44
SOVEREIGN, adjective suv’eran, [We retain this babarous orthography from the Norman sovereign The true spelling would be suveran from the Latin supernes, superus.]
- Supreme in power; possessing supreme dominion; as a sovereign ruler of the universe.
- Supreme; superior to all others; chief. ex. God is the sovereign good of all who love and obey him.
- Supremely efficacious; superior to all others; predominant; effectual; as a sovereign remedy.
- Supreme; pertaining to the first magistrate of a nation; as sovereign authority.
To seize and hold in possession by force or without right; as, to usurp a throne; to usurp the prerogatives of the crown; to usurp power. To usurp the right of a patron, is to oust or dispossess him. ex. Vice sometimes usurps the place of virtue.
[Usurp is not applied to common dispossession of private property.],
VITIATE, Vi’tiate, verb transitive, [Latin vitio. See vice and Viciate.]
- To injure the substance or qualities of a thing, so as to impair or spoil its use and value. Thus we say, luxury vitiates the humors of the body; evil examples vitiate the morals of youth; language is vitiated by foreign idioms. ex. This undistinguishing complaisance will vitiate the taste of readers.
- To render defective; to destroy; as the validity or binding force of an instrument or transaction. ex. Any undue influence exerted on a jury vitiates their verdict. Fraud vitiates a contract.